What is 3-MMC?

3-MMC (3-methylmethcathinone) or metaphedrone belongs to the class of synthetic cathinones, a subgroup of amphetamines. 3-MMC generally occurs in powder or crystal form and is white, granular/crystal-like in structure. But it also appears in tablets. It closely resembles its brother mephedrone (4-MMC or M-CAT), but is often experienced by users as slightly less euphoric.

In addition, 3-MMC is a so-called New Psychoactive Substance (NPS) or research chemical. NPS are rarely well researched; Very little or nothing is known about the short and long-term risks, consequences of frequent use and the risk of addiction. Little is also known about the optimal dose and which dose poses a risk.

Always be extra careful with new drugs. This applies even more to resources that fall into the category NPS: You are your own guinea pig. If you don’t want to take a risk, don’t use drugs.

Effects of 3-MMC

3-MMC is a stimulant.

The effect of a substance is determined by the properties of the substance itself, but also by the set and setting of the user. Here we describe the effects 3-MMC generally has.

The user feels energetic and tends to talk a lot. The euphoric effect is less than that of mephedrone.

Positive effecten (negative) Side effects

Euphoria, feelings of love

This substance can make you feel euphoric, like you are in love. You feel comfortable in your own skin and can experience things as pleasant more quickly.

Increase in blood pressure and heart rate

Due to increased cardiac stimulation, heart rate and blood pressure rise.

Need for contact, conversation and intimacy

Having a good conversation with someone, or cuddling, can be very pleasant and interesting.

Increased body temperature

Stimulants cause increased activity in muscles, and increase the “base temperature” of the body. This causes the body temperature to increase.

Energetic feeling

You have feelings of being energized. Sitting still is sometimes more difficult and this energetic feeling is often expressed through the urge to dance or move.


Feeling a (strong) need to take more when the effect wears off.


This drug can make you more active than usual. You are feeling sharp, awkae and it is easy to focus your attention on the things that are happening around you.

Accelerated thoughts

Thinking seems to go faster. It’s also easier to think clearly. You can go through certain steps in your head faster and make choices faster.

Confusion and restlessness

Confusion and restlessness

Enhanced sensory perception

All sensory experiences that you normally have such as feeling, smelling and tasting become stronger. For example, a nice drink can taste much tastier. Music seems to have gained an extra dimension. It is also possible that some senses become a bit oversensitive and that you find things too intense, such as the lights on the dance floor. So this can be positive or negative.

Paranoia and delusions

Anxiety, paranoia and delusions (e.g. the idea that people are talking about you).

More intense music experiences

Music can be experienced louder or more intense. For example, it can feel as if you are completely ‘absorbed’ in the music or that you feel the low tones from the music go through your body more intensely.


Quickly annoying or irritated.

Changes in perception of time

The passage of time could feel altered during ketamine use. Some parts of the evening fly by, while some parts feel a lot slower. When you are feeling comfortable, it can be nice that the feeling does not seem to stop. But if you feel uncomfortable, this can be a bothersome experience. So this effect can work both ways.


This substance leads to an increase in impulsive behaviour and can make you less aware of the possible consequences that certain actions have. This can be nice because, for example, it is easier to approach someone and have a chat. However, it can also lead to negative situations as you can get into an argument or physical altercation more quickly.

More intense experience of touch

Physical/physical contact with other people feels different or more intense than usual. Giving a hug to someone else can be very pleasant. It can also happen that you prefer not to touch others because this can be too intense. This effect can therefore be both positive and negative.

Dilated pupils

Due to an increased noradrenaline level in the body after taking certain drugs, the pupils become larger. The pupil size is influenced by many different processes. Increase in noradrenaline plays a role in some of those processes.

Increased libido

Increased sexual desires. You feel more attracted to others and feel a stronger need for sexual intimacy.

Double vision

Not being able to focus your eyes properly.

Decreased appetite

Stimulation of the fight-or-flight response in the body can suppress appetite.

Head ache

Sorry, this entry is only available in Dutch.

Increased sweating

In response to the increased stimulation and changes in body temperature, the skin will start to secrete sweat to cool the body temperature back to normal levels.

Dry mouth

Stimulation of sympathetic pathways decrease saliva production, this causes the mouth to feel dry.


An uneasy and tense feeling in the abdomen, which may cause discomfort. Nausea often precedes vomiting.


Some drugs keep you from falling asleep. Stimulants often have this effect, but even after using psychedelics or downers, sleep is disrupted and it is possible that you can’t sleep.

Blue limbs

The discoloration is due to the narrowing of the blood vessels.

Dose and route of administration

3-MMC can be swallowed as well as snorted. It is snorted or swallowed (orally) by putting powder in a capsule or rolling paper (bomb). Sniffing 3-MMC can make you more prone to a strong urge to take a new dose (craving).

Doses for swallowing
Low 25 – 75 mg
Medium 75 – 150 mg
High 150+ mg
Doses for snorting
Low 15 – 25 mg
medium 25 – 75 mg
High 75+ mg

To know whether your pill or powder actually contains 3-MMC, you can have it tested in the Netherlands.


The effects of 3-MMC are noticeable fairly quickly. Depending on what you have eaten, you will feel the effect after 20-60 minutes when swallowing. The peak is reached quite quickly and the effect can last for 4 to 7 hours. When snorting, it works within a few (3-5) minutes. The duration is a bit shorter when snorted.


3-MMC is a New Psychoactive Substance (NPS) and therefore little is known about the risks. Some fatal incidents involving 3-MMC have been reported. The risks are expected to be in line with those of other stimulants, such as speed, cocaine and MDMA.

3-MMC speeds up the heart rate and raises blood pressure. People with high blood pressure and/or heart problems are not advised to experiment with stimulants. Users report that taking 3-MMC can lead to cravings  (a strong need to take more). These cravings often occur earlier with snorting than with swallowing 3-MMC.

Always be extra careful when taking new drugs. This applies even more to resources that fall into the category NPS: You are your own guinea pig. If you don’t want to take a risk, don’t use drugs.

Short term risks

Triggering a drug-induced psychosis

Frequent and high-dosage ketamine use can increase susceptibility to developing psychosis. During a psychosis, you may suffer from delusions, hallucinations, losing your grip on reality, and you could become very anxious. It becomes difficult to differentiate between reality and your thoughts. Your behaviour and thought patterns are often erratic and chaotic.

It is still unclear whether this can only be triggered in people who are already predisposed to psychosis, or whether regular drug use and an unhealthy lifestyle (e.g. little sleep) by itself can induce psychosis.

Using ketamine consecutively for days without sleeping, resting and eating exhausts your body, and therefore increases the risks of psychosis. Does someone in your environment react erratic and anxious? You can help that person by removing distractions (music, TV off for a while) and finding another environment where that person can get some rest. Speak calmly, be understanding and, if necessary, go outside together. Do not deny or confirm any delusions and if it does not get better, call a general practice centre. Medical staff are there to help you and can, if necessary, arrange a consult, write a prescription or provide care in another way.

Read more about psychosis in this article.

Acute confusion / excited delerium syndrome

An acute arousal state is also called an excited delerium syndrome. It is a state of being that is usually caused by excessive drinking or drug use. Often stimulants are involved, like cocaine. The excited delerium syndrome is a life-threatening situation that requires immediate intervention by professional care providers. You can recognize it by very restless and aggressive motorically behaviour. The victim flails around and is unable to calm down. The aggression is not directed, but at random. You can’t make contact with the victim. The victim keeps fighting even when he/she is overpowered by police or security.

Because someone behaves like this, it is easy to imagine that security or police want to overpower someone by pressing him or her down or holding him/her (fixation). However, this is dangerous and can lead to death. The moment you stop someone with excited delirium syndrome, the person will only resist harder, causing the heart rate/blood pressure to continue to rise dangerously.

Vasoconstriction (blood vessel contraction)

Stimulation of the sympathetic (fight-or-flight response) nervous system causes blood vessels supplying some organs to constrict, in order to increase relative blood flow to the muscles.

Epileptic seizure

Taking this drug increases the risk of having an epileptic seizure if you are prone to it.


Overheating (hyperthermia) can occur when your body temperature rises too high. Using drugs in a hot, humid, crowded environment (such as a club or indoor party, or in the sun at an outdoor festival) will raise your body temperature even further. Combined with intense, long, uninterrupted dancing, overheating can occur.

Early symptoms of overheating;

  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Stiff muscles
  • Dizziness

These are all symptoms that can also fall under the “normal” side effects of a drug. If the body temperature does not drop, the following symptoms may also occur:

  • Shivering
  • Elevated heart rate
  • Pale appearance
  • Impaired consciousness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

If the body temperature rises to 40-41 degrees Celsius, the situation is life-threatening:

  • Breakdown of muscle tissue
  • Blood clotting throughout the body
  • Impaired functioning of kidneys and liver
  • Epileptic seizure


Depending on circumstances, overheating may also occur with “normal” doses of a drug.

Overheating is very dangerous and difficult to treat. Attempting to cool down, resting, and drinking enough water (no more than one glass per hour) is necessary to prevent overheating. Sweating is also an important way to cool down: by evaporating the sweat on your skin, it cools down slightly. But if the ambient humidity is very high (when condensate drops fall from the ceiling), sweat can’t evaporate well enough and therefore your body can’t cool down properly.

Exhaustion and trouble sleeping

Exhaustion and trouble sleeping

Depression (hangover)

A hangover may occur after using this drug. You feel tired, depressed, sad, listless, hypersensitive and empty. How bad the Tuesday blues is differes a lot from person to person. However, users often report experiencing fatigue and low mood for the days following use. It is unclear what exactly causes the hangover. But a high dose, combination use, dancing in combination with little food and little or no sleep certainly play a major role.

Long term risks

Increased chance of heart arrhythmias, heart attack and stroke

Increased chance of heart arrhythmias, heart attack and stroke.

Mental problems

Mental complaints can arise or already existing psychological complaints can worsen. Feeling gloomy or anxious, not feeling well and poor concentration.

Psychological dependency

When someone has a psychological dependency, they are convinced that they cannot function without using the substance.

However, there is no physical change in body chemistry that would produce bodily side effects from quitting the substance.


Combining different types of drugs can be risky and unpredictable. When you combine drugs you can have a higher risk of health problems. In the following paragraphs you can read about the effects and the risks of a number of combinations that occur frequently and also a about few that are extra hazardous. Also check our theme combining drugs.

3-MMC and alcohol

3-MMC give you energy and makes you less tired. As a result, you may feel the sedating effects of the alcohol less and you may tend to drink more alcohol. Be careful, because this can cause an extra large hangover. So do not drink alcohol while taking 3-MMC use or make an agreement in advance with yourself or your friends how many glasses of alcohol you want to drink. This prevents headaches the next day and is better for your health!

3-MMC and cannabis

Some users find it a pleasant combination. Cannabis can soften the rush, especially at the end. However, it can also make the experience a bit more vague, which is not always positive.

3-MMC and GHB

3-MMC is sometimes combined with GHB to take the edge off the 3-MMC or to make you hornier when used in a sexual setting. The risk of the combination is that you will not feel the anesthetic effect of GHB due to the stimulating effect of 3-MMC, which increases the chance of overdosing with GHB. If you then take too much GHB, your body is still stimulated, but you are no longer or not fully conscious. That can look very weird. Someone then moves very strangely but it is not possible to make (proper) contact.
Here you can read more about what to do when somebody passes out.

Unity tips for 3-MMC

There is no really safe use of 3-MMC, but you can limit the risks. For this we at Unity have the following tips for you:

  • Have your 3-MMC tested at a testing service.
  • Use in a trusted environment, with people you know.
  • Do not use if you are not feeling well mentally or physically.
  • Use only for pleasure, not to combat symptoms such as fatigue.
  • There is no research into the dangers of 3-MMC, but (fatal) incidents have been reported.
  • Do not use if you have (had) psychological complaints or if you have psychological complaints (such as depression) in your family.
  • Eat healthy before and after 3-MMC use. Especially lots of antioxidants and vitamins (blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, grapes, raisins, oranges, kiwi, broccoli).
  • It is difficult to eat during and after 3-MMC use, but preferably try to eat something salty (chips). Eating right definitely reduces the hangover! If you don’t get solid foods, think juices, breakfast drinks, smoothies.
  • Do not use in: diabetes, weak heart, high blood pressure, pregnancy, epilepsy and psychological complaints or in combination with medicines (especially not with MAO inhibitors and asthma medicines).
  • Do not drink more than 2 glasses of water per hour, otherwise the risk of water intoxication increases.
  • Make sure you don’t get too hot during 3-MMC use: rest occasionally, do not wear warm clothes, no headgear, and drink water or soft drinks every now and then.
  • Do not combine with alcohol and other drugs.
  • Do not participate in traffic.
  • 3-MMC evokes feelings of intimacy. In combination with a carefree mood, safe sex can sometimes be missed. Be prepared and have a condom with you.

Unity tips for using stimulants

  • Do not combine high stimulant doses with other stimulants
  • Do not use stimulants if you suffer from diabetes, cardiovascular disease, epilepsy or psychological afflictions. Also, do not use stimulants if you are pregnant, or in combination with medications (especially MAO inhibitors and asthma medication).
  • Make sure you don’t get too warm while using stimulants: rest every now and then, don’t wear (too) warm clothes or headgear and drink water/soft drinks occasionally.
  • Get enough rest before using stimulants. If you are very tired or suffer from insomnia, do not use stimulants!
  • Moderate use is key. Keep track of how much you take.
  • Drink enough to keep yourself hydrated, but no more than 2 glasses of water per hour. Exceeding this increases the risk of water intoxication.
  • Stimulants can give you a dry mouth, which, combined with teeth grinding, increases the risk of damage to your teeth. It is important to stimulate your saliva production. You can do this by chewing sugar-free gum. Saliva substitutes or artificial saliva (such as Saliva Orthana, Xialine and Oral Balance) can also be used and can be purchased without a prescription.

Unity tips for using drugs

  • When using a drug for the first time, take only a small dose to see how your body reacts to the substance
  • Only use drugs when you are feeling well
  • Use drugs recreationally, not to combat psychological issues like fatigue
  • Avoid using drugs if you have (had) psychological afflictions or if you have a family history of psychological diseases (such as depression) in your family
  • Test your drugs before use at a drugs-testing service
  • Make sure to prepare a good set and setting for drug use
  • Only use drugs sparingly. Keep track of your use over time.
  • Decide in advance how much you are planning to use over the evening, and stick to that. 
  • Do not combine drugs with other substances or medicines
  • Do not participate in traffic after drug use
  • Prevent infectious diseases; Use your own snorter/sniffer and do not share paraphernalia with others
  • After insufflating, rinse your nose well with lukewarm saline water (for example, by using a nasal spray or nasal douche)
  • Are you, or one of your friends not feeling well? Keep an eye out for one another, take care of each other and visit the first aid (if one is available)
  • Call 112 in a life-threatening situation
  • Eat healthy before and after drug use. In particular, foods with lots of antioxidants and vitamins (blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, grapes, raisins, oranges, kiwi, broccoli). This is perhaps the most important tip! It can be difficult to eat during and after drug use, but make sure to try to eat something anyway. Eating well is a great way to reduce the hangover! If you can’t hold in solid foods, try juices, breakfast drinks, and smoothies.


What does the law say about 3-MMC?

3-MMC is not on list of the Opium Act. The Commidity Act regulates 3-MMC. Which means it can’t be sold for human consumption. Extensive research into the effects and risks is lacking.

There are plans to put 3-MMC on list 2 of the Opium Act.

How did the use of 3-MMC start?

Just like mephedrone (4-MMC), methylone and MDPV, 3-MMC belongs to the group of cathinones. Cathinone is the synthetic variant of the natural drug khat, which closely resembles speed in molecular structure. Although khat has been used in Somalia for centuries, synthetic cathinones do not have a long history of use.

Mephedrone has been detected in the Netherlands since 2009 by the Drug Information and Monitoring System (DIMS). Initially as adulteration in ecstasy pills. Mephedrone has been on Opium List I since 2012, which means that possession, trade and production are punishable by law. Soon after mephedrone became illegal (also in other countries), new alternatives emerged, including 3-MMC.

What to do if someone has a bad trip?

Always make sure that you are and remain safe yourself. If you are in danger, you cannot help the person in need.
Find a quiet place with the one who is having a hard time. Don’t try to deny that he/she is having a bad trip. Try to reassure him/her: he/she has taken drugs and the effects and thus the bad trip always wear off. Ask the person about what they are experiencing and try to talk the trip on a positive side without downplaying it. For example, by giving a positive meaning to the things he/she sees. Try to do things that make him/her feel comfortable, such as moving or singing. See if it makes sense to talk about pleasant things. Distraction can also help, for example by drawing. Let your voice sound calm and reassuring.
Make sure that the user does not end up in dangerous situations such as traffic. Call emergency services if it becomes unsafe for the user or his environment or if the bad trip is too intense to solve it yourself.

What is the difference between 3-MMC and 4-MMC?

3-MMC and 4-MMC (meow meow/mephedrone) are both stimulants. Users feel energized by both drugs and tend to talk a lot. The euphoric effect of 3-MMC is less than that of mephedrone. The duration of 4-MMC is between 1.5-3 hours when used orally (swallowing). With nasal use (sniffing) this is 45 minutes to 1.5 hours. The effects of 3-MMC seem to last a little longer than those of 4-MMC.

Users report craving for both substances. That is the urge to take another line. The craving may be stronger with 3-MMC than with 4-MMC.

The names 3-MMC and 4-MMC are very similar. This is because the atoms that make up the molecules are the same, only the place where they bond is slightly different. In the case of 3-MMC it is at position 3, and for 4-MMC at position 4. So the molecules are very similar and therefore they also work in a very similar way in the brain.

What if I have medical complaints after the use of partydrugs?

Some complaints after using drugs can last longer, A medical explanation or even treatment may then be necessary. The Brijder has set up a national consultancy for party drugs related medical complaints. If you have medical complaints after the use of party drugs, you can call the consultancy: 088 – 358 29 40. This service is only available in the Netherlands.


How do you dose powder or capsules?

To be able to weigh a certain dose properly, you need a good scale. Have a scale that can weigh milligrams, to 3 decimal places (0.001 mg). A scale that weighs 0.01 (2 decimal places) may be just accurate enough for MDMA, but not for many other substances.

Where can you find such a scale?

On the large international online webshops you can find scales for around 20 euros that can weigh 3 figures after the decimal point. You can buy empty capsules in different sizes at pharmacies, smart shops or drugstores. Some are also suitable for vegetarians. You can write the drug and dosage on the capsule with a waterproof marker or a CD marker.

I am planning to use 3-MMC with another stimulant. What are the consequences?

3-MMC can cause heart problems and overheating and this risk is increased with combination use with other stimulants. Combination use can also lead to (extremely) aggressive behavior more quickly. The chance that you will act rash or reckless increases. The hangover could be worse. In addition, combination use can make a fun experience too intense or get out of hand. Especially with the lack of research into NPS in mind, it is discouraged to combine. Combination use always carries additional risks. For more information, check the theme Drugs and combination use.

How does 3-MMC affect the brain?

Recent research indicates that 3-MMC exerts its effect by increasing the amount of available norepinephrine and dopamine in the nervous system. In addition, 3-MMC has a strong effect on serotonin, although less than mephedrone (4-MMC). 3-MMC therefore has a less euphoric effect than mephedrone.

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