Alcohol increases the risk of cancer. There is an increased risk of colon cancer upward of three glasses of alcohol a day. The risk of breast cancer in women is already increased from one glass per day, probably due to the effect alcohol has on the endocrine system. Upward of four glasses a day for women and six glasses a day for men increases the risk of oesophageal cancer. For oral cavity cancer, it is six glasses a day for women and eight glasses a day for men. The risk of these types of cancers is extra high for those who both drink and smoke. Only heavy alcohol consumption leads to an increased risk of liver cancer and pancreatitis, which in turn increases the risk of pancreatic cancer.